Nigeria is located in West Africa, in the basin of the lower reaches of the Niger river.
Nigeria is almost four times greater than the territory of Great Britain and is equal to the area of France, Belgium, Italy, and Denmark combined. In terms of population (over 35 million people), it is the largest country in Africa.
Let’s see what which desert’s edge is found at Nigeria’s northernmost borderland and what measures are being taken to mitigate the possible impact.
1. List of deserts in Africa
2. General geographic information about northern Nigeria
Nigeria is situated between Cameroon and Benin. In the southeast of the country, there are mostly mountains, while in the north of Nigeria, all you can see are the plain surfaces.
2.1. Names of deserts in Nigeria
Nigeria has a great variety of unique regions, but the north of it is bordered with Sahara, one of the greatest deserts in the world. Its northern extremity lies at 14° of the northern latitude, at the southern edge of the Sahara desert.
The fact that Sahara is located so close influences the many factors of life of northern Nigerians: the climate, the flora, and fauna, but most of all, it influences agriculture.
2.3. Is Nigeria in the Sahara Desert?
Those people, who live in Bauchi, Kaduna, Adamawa and Gombe states are already suffering from the widening process of Sahara. The sand and dryness make it impossible to plant crops to earn money for a living.
In the north of the country, the temperature varies significantly with the seasons, the humidity becomes less. Average annual temperatures exceed +25°С. In the Niger Delta, rainfall is up to 4000 mm per year, in the far north – no more than 500 mm.
In the north, the hottest months are March – June. The driest period is winter, when Harmattan wind blows from the northeast, bringing daytime heat and sharp daily temperature drops from desert areas of the mainland.
During the day the air warms up to +40°C and more, and at night temperature drops to +10°C).
3. Building a wall of trees as a promising solution to the problem of expansion of the Sahara
Volunteers from various international organizations have paid a visit to the Sahel region to help fight the drought.
Today, the fact that Nigeria’s northern region may become an extension of the Sahara’s territory bothers everyone. Sahara desert is spreading and has already reached the northern parts of Nigeria.
More than 20 African countries have begun building a «living wall» of trees, which should prevent the spread of the Sahara desert across the continent.
The wall should be finished in 2030 and it will take 8 thousand km. The wall should be the largest «living structure» on the planet.
In addition to protecting African nature, the wall should also help solve problems with poverty on the continent, as construction will create more jobs, replenish drinking water in the region and provide food for local communities.
In Nigeria, 4 million hectares of dried land have already been restored, and in Senegal and Ethiopia, 12 and 15 million lands have been planted with trees, respectively, on the border between the states and the Sahara.
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